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Learn more about ƒ¿-GPC

Structure of ƒ¿-GPC

ƒ¿-GPC is a water-soluble compound in which two fatty acids are deacylated from phosphatidylcholine (PC), a type of phospholipid.
It is called "sn-glycero(3)phosphocholine" in the scientific name.

Molecular structure

Molecular structure

Feature

Appearance White Powder
Flavor Odorless and weak sweetness
Solubility Freelydissolved in water
Physical property Highly deliquescent, aqueous solution is colorless and transparent

Features of ƒ¿-GPC

Safe ingredient

ƒ¿-GPC is a substance that is universally present in the body, such as breast milk, and is a safe ingredient.
It has also been confirmed as safe as food.

Acute toxicity test (LD50)F
Oral administration 2,000 mg or more/kg
Intravenous administration 650mg/kg

ƒ¿-GPC contained in breast milk

Most of the molecular structure of choline contained in breast milk exists as a structure of ƒ¿-GPC.

(Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:572-6)

Most of the molecular structure of choline contained in breast milk exists as a structure of ƒ¿-GPC.

Choline is an important ingredient for babies. Breast milk contains a lot of choline molecules. ƒ¿-GPC is one of the major molecular species of choline in breast milk.

ƒ¿-GPC acts centrally as a choline supplement.

Types of choline supplements and their characteristics

Ingredient name Molecular weight Features
ƒ¿-GPC 256 Pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB)
Intake 2.5 times
PC
iPhosphatidylcholinej
753
iFatty acids C18j
Pass the BBB
Intake 7.5 times
Choline chloride 140
iCholineF104j
Pass the BBB
Fishy sweat and body odor caused by trimethylamine
Acetylcholine 146 Does not pass the BBB
CDP-Choline
(citicoline)
488 Pass the BBB
Pharmaceuticals (medicine treatment drugs)

Since ƒ¿-GPC pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), it acts centrally as a choline supplement.

ƒ¿-GPC is absorbed efficiently.

90% or more of PC (Phosphatidylcholine) is absorbed from lymphatic vessels, but most of ƒ¿-GPC is taken up from the portal vein, so it is absorbed more efficiently.

PC and ƒ¿-GPC

Research at NOF CORPORATION

Regarding the effects of ƒ¿-GPC, NOF has been one of the first to work on research and obtain various data.

Growth hormone secretion promoting effect, free fatty acid concentration increasing effect

Healthy adults were ingested 1,000 mg of ƒ¿-GPC, and blood choline concentration, growth hormone concentration and free fatty acid concentration were measured. Significant increases in choline concentration, growth hormone concentration, and free fatty acid concentration were observed in the ƒ¿-GPC intake group compared with the placebo group.

¦Placebo group (n=8), ƒ¿-GPC group (n=6)

Growth hormone secretion promoting effect, free fatty acid concentration increasing effect

By ingesting ƒ¿-GPC, choline is supplied to the body, promoting the secretion of growth hormone. In addition, due to the action of growth hormone, the concentration of free fatty acids is also rising, and you are ready to burn fat.

Ingestion of ƒ¿-GPC

Effect of promoting lipid burning by combined use with mild exercise

Healthy adults were subjected to aerobic exercise (4METs) for 30 minutes after ingesting 1,000 mg of ƒ¿-GPC, and respiratory quotient was measured. Was recognized.

Ingestion of ƒ¿-GPC

*Respiratory quotient is the volume ratio of carbon dioxide generated by the oxidation of nutrients in the body and oxygen consumed.
The smaller the number, the higher the proportion of fat burning.

*About '4METs'
A unit that indicates the intensity of physical activity (indicates how many times energy consumption is at rest)
The activity of 4METs is such that "Do various household chores at the same time", "Play with children", "Gardening", etc.

Abdominal subcutaneous fat area reduction effect

Middle-aged women were given 1,000 mg of ƒ¿-GPC per day and aerobic exercise was performed 3 days a week for 4 weeks, and the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was measured. As a result, there was a tendency to decrease compared to before the test.

Ingestion of ƒ¿-GPC

It can be confirmed that fat burning is promoted by "ingestion of ƒ¿-GPC + simple exercise".

Type I collagen/hyaluronic acid production promotion effect (ƒ¿-GPC addition experiment to cells)

ƒ¿-GPC was added to cells derived from human skin and cultured for 24 hours. Comparison with cells without ƒ¿-GPC addition revealed a significant difference in the amount of type I collagen, an index of skin firmness, and the concentration of hyaluronic acid, an index of skin moisturization. Concentrations of 1.0 ƒÊM and 10 ƒÊM correspond to the ƒ¿-GPC concentration in serum during animal experiments, and a physiological effect on blood concentration was confirmed.

Ingestion of ƒ¿-GPC

It can be confirmed that ƒ¿-GPC exerts an effect on skin firmness and gloss.

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ƒ¿-GPC phosphatidylserine (PS) Policosanol